≪Fiber knowledge / fabric types≫
*cotton* *hair* *silk* *hemp* * Cupra * * Rayon *
*polyester* *acrylic* * Acetate *
* Triacetate * *Nylon* * Polyurethane * * Artificial leather *
* Synthetic leather *

About cotton Cotton trees are cultivated in the “Aoishinada genus” once a year and are produced in more than 80 countries in the tropical and sub-mature regions, accounting for about 40% of the world’s textile production (as of 2,000). In production, the production volume and quality may fluctuate due to the influence of the weather.
Cotton is fruited after a beautiful flower blooms, fiber cells grow finely around the fruit, matures and shells pop and become a cotton ball. Pick a cotton ball, separate seeds and fibers, and continue spinning and spinning.
The thickness of cotton fibers varies, but on average, the thickness is 0.01 to O.O2mm and the length is 20 to 40mm.
The cross-section is hollow and ribbon-like flat, so it is light and warm. A single fiber has 200 to 300 natural kinks (natural twist), so it can be tightly entangled when spun into yarn. Fibers usually contain 7 to 10% moisture, but 94% is made up of cellulose.
Recently, in the United States, organic cotton that has been cultivated without using any synthetic chemical fertilizer has been produced on farmland that has not used synthetic chemicals for more than three years.
Characteristic ・ Hygroscopic and feels cool by taking away the latent heat of vaporization.
・ Soft touch.
・ There is moderate heat retention.
・ Static electricity is difficult to occur.
-It has enough strength and is easy to wash and bleach.
・ Withstands high-temperature irons.
・ Shrinks easily due to washing. .
・ There is no set property.
・ It is flammable.
Handling precautions As it shrinks by washing, some items may require dry cleaning.
<To list of fibers>

About hair There are wool and animal hair (cashmere, angora, mohair, alpaca, camel, etc.). Generally, wool refers to wool (face sheep hair). About 40% of the world’s wool production is Merino, which is soft and shiny compared to other wool. The world’s largest producer is Australia.
Wool is made of a protein called keratin and consists of a scaly epidermis (scale) and a cortex (cortex), and the scale protects the fibers. In addition, the scale surface has the property of repelling water, and Cortex is hygroscopic. Furthermore, Cortex has a two-layer structure and the properties are different. Therefore, the shrinkage difference is caused by the action of heat and moisture, and the fiber is crimped. The expansion and contraction of the crimp due to moisture absorption and drying is called hygral expansion. This is a major feature of wool and is why it is called “living fiber”.
Characteristic ・ The fiber has elasticity and elasticity, and it is hard to wrinkle.
・ Low thermal conductivity and high heat retention.
-Although it has the property of repelling water, it absorbs moisture well, so it feels damp even if you sweat.
・ Because of the scale of the surface, if it penetrates even in a state containing moisture, the fibers are entangled and become felt.
・ Prone to pilling.
・ Fiber-resistant fiber.
Handling precautions ・ Because insects eat, care must be taken for storage.
(An insect repellent is also required for long-term storage)
・ Since it is susceptible to water, generally avoid washing with water.
(However, washable products can be washed with water.)
・Washed fabrics are easy to wear, so ironing irons are required.
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About silk  Silk fiber is made of silk thread sprinkled by silkworms to make silkworms, and has a structure in which two fibroin fibers are covered with glue quality called sericin. Fibroin has a triangular cross section, and its elegant luster depends on this structure. Moreover, the silk thread spouted by the silkworm is nearly 1000m. This is a hard fiber (raw silk), but when it is put into alkaline hot water, sericin melts and the silk has a unique texture and glossy silk.
Silk is often used as a filament (long fiber), giving it a unique texture. In addition, there are spun yarns (silk spun yarn) spun from sawdust and raw waste. Since silk belongs to protein fiber like wool, it smells the same as when the hair burns when burned.
Characteristic -It is light, supple and elegant.
・ It has a beautiful luster.
・ Dyeing is good and deep shades appear.
・ No discomfort to the skin.
・ It is weak against friction and fluffs when rubbed with moisture. (Thread)
・ Color may fade in some cases.
・ Turns yellow when exposed to ultraviolet rays.
Handling precautions ・ Since many silk products are threaded, avoid washing them with water.
(However, washable products can be washed with water.)
・ In case of washing with water, neutral detergent, press wash, dehydrate with a towel, adjust the shape and dry in the shade.
・ Store it in a place with little moisture and no light.
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About hemp  There are many fibers called hemp, all of which are collected from the trunk (or stem or leaf) of the plant.
The main products are flax (Linen, linen), chomp (Ramie), cannabis (Hemp, hemp), jute (Jute), Manila hemp. However, the linen by the Household Goods Quality Labeling means only flax (linen) and chomp (ramie).
Hemp has been used for a long time with the history of mankind. In Europe, linen underwear was common until the 19th century, and even in Japan, commoners wore ramie for a long time.
Characteristic -Good heat dissipation and cool as it absorbs and exhales moisture.
・ There are natural slabs and neps, so there is a rich expression on the surface.
・ Easily wrinkled among fibers. (Also possible to use a wrinkle as a fashion)
less likely to stain-uniform,
(because of differential absorption of the dye by site of fiber, easily dyed to deep shades of gray, or appeared to be uneven)
– Seiseiri in the laundry It turns white.
(Since the production of hemp is a natural color, it is difficult to reproduce the same color. Also, it can be faded by washing.)
・ Skin damage is likely to occur (it tingles).
・ It becomes hard when put in water and softens when ironed.
Handling precautions ・ Do not bleach at home.
・ Washing with water is recommended.
(Hemp is a fiber that easily removes dirt, but sweat dirt cannot be removed only by dry cleaning. Also, if sweat is left untreated, it will turn yellow)
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About cupra  Cupra is the same regenerated fiber as rayon and polynosic, but the main raw material is cotton linter (short fiber left after picking cotton from cotton seeds) and the fiber is melted with copper ammonia solution and spun.
Cupra means “copper”. In other words, the name is due to the manufacturing method. “Cupra” is also known as “Pemberg”. “Cupra” is a common name, and “Pengperg” is a proper noun (trade name of Asahi Kasei). However, only the designated term “cupra” can be used in the clothing quality labeling method.
Cupra is a very thin thread that can be used as a tricot or fabric fabric. Mainly filament yarn, but some staples are also produced.
Characteristic ・ Hygroscopic and hygroscopic.
・ It has an elegant luster.
-Since it is soft and supple, it has draping properties.
-Excellent dyeability.
-Static electricity is hard to occur.
Handling precautions ・ Do not wash or squeeze firmly.
・ The fiber is easily fibrillated (fluffed) by friction. It is easy to get up when wet, so if a stain or the like adheres to it, do not rub it, but tap it with a dry towel.
<To list of fibers>

About Rayon  Rayon is the first chemical fiber created in the world with the goal of silk. Starting with this rayon, the subsequent chemical fibers developed rapidly.
Rayon is classified as a recycled fiber of chemical fiber. This is because cellulose (fibrin) in wood pulp such as eucalyptus and red ash is treated with alkali, and a rayon stock solution (called piscose) reacted with carbon disulfide is extruded into an acidic bath from a “ base ” with many fine holes, Cellulose is regenerated into fibers.
Because of its manufacturing method, it is called regenerated fiber and is also called viscose rayon or simply viscose. Rayon is made of the same cellulose as cotton and linen, so it can be said to be an ecological fiber that biodegrades in the soil and circulates in the soil.
Characteristic ・ Hygroscopic and water-absorbing, with excellent dyeability.
-Easy to blend with other fibers, often used for blending and weaving.
-Woven fabrics and knitted fabrics are excellent in draping and can express beautiful silhouettes.
・ It tends to wrinkle, shrinks when wet and weakens slightly.
Handling precautions ・ Do not rub or squeeze firmly when washing.
・ It will “whiten” if it is subjected to strong friction with moisture.
(It looks whitish due to the splitting of the fibers)-If
there is a partial wetting of water, sweat, water-soluble dirt, etc., the “after” will remain and
may not be removed even after dry cleaning.
・ If you spill food or drink or get wet in the rain, do not rub it, but quickly dry it with a dry towel
<To list of fibers>


About polyester  Synthetic fiber made from petroleum, developed by Temerica DuPont (Dacron) and ICI (Terylene), respectively, in the 1950s.
In Japan, Toray and Teijin quickly received a manufacturing license and started domestic production. Tetoron was used as a common trademark for both. Later, after the process patents, Toyobo, Kanebo, Kuraray, Unitika, Mitsubishi Rayon, Asahi Kasei and others started manufacturing under the brand name “Ester”.
Currently, it is the most common fiber material in the world among synthetic fibers. Since these fibers have a wide range of applications, a wide variety of yarns have been developed for different purposes, such as ultrafine fiber yarns, irregular cross-section yarns, hollow fibers, and different shrinkage blended yarns.
Characteristic ・ There is a beautiful gloss.
-Extremely strong (chemical resistance, strength) fiber.
・ Excellent wash and wear.
(Washed and worn with a non-iron)
(Excellent in anti-wrinkle, quick-drying, and dimensional stability)
-Thermoplastic. (Suitable for pleating)
・ Easily charged with static electricity. (Antistatic processing is necessary)
-Different color dyeing is possible.
(When using C / D polyester (cationic diaple) and regular polyester, different color dyeing becomes possible)
(A more silky luster and suppleness are produced by alkali treatment of polyester)
Handling precautions ・ Use ironing cloth. (To prevent shine)-It
is more susceptible to heat than natural fibers. (Cigarette fire, iron, etc.
<To list of fibers>

About acrylic  ”Acrylic fiber that can be sweetened to the skin” This is a good representation of the properties of acrylic span. It is soft and soft and has a warm touch that is similar to wool among synthetic fibers. This “soft” feeling is called “bulkyness” or “bulky”.
Acrylic (span) can be made freely from cashmere-like soft ones to mohair-like rough ones, and has entered the wool field greatly, but the excellent performance of acrylic is especially knitted products is. Acrylic has other filaments that are similar to silk.
Other than this, we are also good at acrylic wigs such as animal stuffed animals with long hair and soft touch, and the last fashionable hair piece.
Characteristic ・ It has a lighter and bulkier texture than hair.
-Good heat retention, plump and warm.
-Like wool, it has a good elastic recovery rate and is less likely to wrinkle.
・ It has very good color development and can be dyed to your favorite color.
-Even if it hits sunlight, it is hardly affected.
-Resistant to chemicals and not susceptible to mold or insect damage.
・ There is thermoplasticity.
・ Pilling (pilling) is likely to occur.
Handling precautions -Knit products are easy to stretch due to their own weight.
(When washing, use a bath towel to sew well and lay flat in a well-ventilated place. When storing, avoid hanging on a hanger and store in a folded position.)
• Use a steam iron to float Apply steam lightly to adjust the shape.
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<Acetate / Triacetate>
About acetate
Acetate is a chemical fiber made by reacting acetic acid with the same as rayon in that it is composed of cellulose (fibrin) of wood pulp.
Since cellulose is a natural product and acetic acid is a synthetic product, it is classified as a semi-synthetic fiber. There are also different types of acetate, which are divided into diacetate (di means two) and triacetate (tri means three) depending on the number of acetate groups attached to cellulose. Generally acetate refers to di-acetate. As a fiber, an overwhelmingly large amount of di-acetate is produced.
Triacetate has almost the same properties as diacetate, but has more stable properties such as excellent form stability and heat resistance when wet.
Tobacco filters are made in the east of acetate fiber, and they exhibit excellent filtration performance and adjust the taste of tobacco.
Characteristic -Beautiful and elegant luster and feel like silk.
-Specific gravity is lighter than cotton, rayon, cupra, etc., almost the same as wool, with a plump texture and rich feel.
-Beautiful drapes and silhouettes can be expressed.
-It has thermoplasticity (the property that its shape is fixed when heat is applied) and is effective for pleat sets.
・ Tensile strength is weaker than rayon and friction is inferior.
Handling precautions ・ It may be discolored or discolored by polluting gas in the atmosphere (exhaust gas from automobiles and oil stoves).
・ Since the solvent containing the thinner (light removal solution, etc.) may dissolve or open holes, care must be taken when handling such items.
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About nylon  Nylon was invented by DuPont in 1935 and was the first industrialized synthetic fiber. Initially developed using coal as a raw material, debuted with the catchphrase of “thinner than silk thread, stronger than steel”, pantyhose for clothing, swimwear, ski wear, carpet for interior, industrial materials, etc. It is used for a wide range of applications such as fish nets, ropes, and tire cords.
Nylon is a type of polyamide fiber such as nylon 6 or nylon 66, but nylon 6 is mainly produced in Japan. Other than nylon, there is “aramid”, but the quality labeling method displays “aramid” instead of nylon.
Characteristic ・ Light specific gravity.

Resistant to friction and bending (strength does not change even when wet) .
・ Dries quickly because it absorbs almost no water or moisture.
-It has thermoplasticity (the property that its shape is fixed when heat is applied), and it does not easily expand or contract when properly heat set.
-Resistant to chemicals and oils.
-Resistant to insect and kapi damage.
-Easy to dye and good color development.
・ Easily charged with static electricity and dust.
Handling precautions ・ If exposed to ultraviolet rays (sunlight) for a long time, it will turn yellow (especially on a white background) and the strength will decrease
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About polyurethane  Polyurethane is an elastic fiber developed in Germany around 1940 that stretches and shrinks like rubber. It can be made thinner than natural rubber, is strong against chemicals, and is generally used as a processed yarn with natural fibers and chemical fibers wrapped around polyurethane as a core.
Recently, many yarns, such as jackets and pants, are called stretch materials. It is also widely used in swimwear, sportswear, socks, underwear, etc. In addition, it is used as a coating resin.
Characteristic -Elasticity like rubber.
・ It is dyeable unlike natural rubber.
・ It is easily degraded by chlorine, ultraviolet rays, sweat and gas.
-The material performance is stable even with rapid changes in temperature and humidity.
Handling precautions ・ When washing with water, avoid strong fir washing.
(Partial elasticity may change.)
・ Use a net when washing machine.
(To avoid deformation caused by “twisting” of the product)
・ Petroleum is used for dry cleaning.
・ Avoid steam iron and tumbler drying.
(Product shrinkage may occur.)
・ In the case of mixed materials with polyester (dark color), there is a risk of contamination of light-colored parts by dry cleaning.
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<Artificial leather and synthetic leather>
Artificial leather
synthetic leather
with  Artificial hides are made by imitating the appearance and structure of natural leather, making polyester and other fine fibers into a non-woven fabric, and impregnating it in polyurethane resin. There are suede type and silver type, both of which are difficult to distinguish from natural hides.
Synthetic hides can be either coated on the surface of the fabric with polyurethane resin or by a film on the release paper and applied to the base fabric. In this case, a polyurethane resin is applied to the base fabric in advance and immersed in water to form a microporous layer. The wet method is called a dry method, and the one without a microporous layer is called a dry method.
Polyurethane is used for convenience because of its high degree of freedom of deformation, good texture, and flexibility.
Characteristic ・ It is a fashion fabric similar to natural leather.
・ It has a light and soft texture.
・ Polyurethane resin used for artificial leather and synthetic leather usually starts to become brittle after about 4-5 years.
(The cause of embrittlement may be sweat, ultraviolet rays, nitric oxide gas, residual dry cleaning solvent, etc.)
Handling precautions ・ If sweat, rain, hair conditioner, etc. adheres, wipe off moisture with a dry towel.
・ Please dry in the shade after use.
・ Do not expose to direct light for a long time.
・ Be sure to take out the plastic bag when returned from dry cleaning.
・ Do not leave in a hot and humid place for a long time.
・ Please dry in a well-ventilated place several times a year.
・ When you return the bag from dry cleaning and take a plastic bag, if it smells, there may be residual solvent. At that time, chemical burns may occur if worn, so please dry it in a well-ventilated place before wearing it.